How to Make Curd Cheese and Farmer Cheese

Indian paneer,  Italian ricotta,  Russian tvorog and Azerbaijani kesmik.  What do they have in common? A lot. These are similar variations of soft cheese made from curdled milk. (In fact, curdled milk translates as kesilmish sud in Azeri. The name kesmik comes from “kesmek” or “kesilmek” which  means to curdle.) The common technique in making these cheeses involves combining milk with a small amount of acid and heating it up until the curdles form. The acidity here may be provided by vinegar, lemon juice, buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream or even citric acid. Azerbaijanis  use good old plain yogurt for this purpose.

In Azerbaijan, kesmik is eaten for breakfast, wrapped around lavash flatbread slathered with butter, or it is used as a filling in a variety of pastries. Kesmik is also a popular baby food.

You can make your own  kesmik using the following foolproof recipe. Plus you will get extra bonus here – from curd cheese you can also make farmer cheese, Azerbaijani shor!

I often use homemade curd cheese in place of  ricotta cheese in recipes that call for the latter. Here are some of the past AZ Cookbook recipes that will help  you  make good use of your homemade curd cheese. Enjoy!

“Banana” Pastries
Crumb Cake “Fragile”CrumbLemon-Cardamom Ricotta CookiesCheese and Yogurt Cake with Lemon Zest

Home Made Curd Cheese (Kesmik)

Makes 2 to 3 cups cheese

Ingredients you will need:

8 cups whole milk (2 liter / 1/2 US gallon)
2 cups  plain yogurt

Equipment you will need:

A clean pot
2-3 layers of cheesecloth or a large piece of muslin cloth
A Colander


Line the colander with layers of cheesecloth or a muslin. Put the colander in the sink.

Put the milk in a medium non-reactive pot and bring to a boil over medium heat. Stir them milk often to prevent the bottom from burning.  As it comes to a boil, stir in the yogurt. Stir occasionally.  After a few minutes, the milk will curdle –  curds (they will look like clusters of clouds) will separate from the clear liquid called whey. Make sure the curds and the whey are completely separated or you will end up with a small amount of curds and therefor the cheese.

As soon as the separation is complete, remove the pan from the heat. Gently pour the contents of the pot into the colander and let the whey drain. Do not squeeze the curds or press onto them.  You can also gather up the ends of the cloth  and hang it over the sink or a bowl to allow the remaining moisture to drip. Once most of the moisture is gone, your curd cheese is ready. Remember that kesmik should not be extremely dry. If it is too dry it becomes shor, farmer cheese. (Recipe follows.)

Store the curd cheese in the refrigerator for up to 1 week.

How to Turn Curd Cheese into Farmer Cheese:

If you want to obtain farmer cheese (shor), once the curd cheese has been strained, while it is still in the cheesecloth/mulsin, shape it as a disk and wrap the cloth around it. Place something heavy (such as a pan) on top. All the remaining moisture will drain and the curd cheese will turn into farmer cheese. Farmer cheese is drier than curd cheese and has a crumbly texture and can be sliced.  Store in the refrigerator for up to 1 week – the cheese will harden and be be easy to slice once properly chilled.

Making Curd Cheese - Kesmik



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  1. HI Farida!!!! I love your blog!! in fact I just made your honey cake yesterday for the second time, and my hubby and kids cant wait till tommorrow to have a slice:)))
    I love kesmik as well, there is an easier way to make it, I have found a recipe here:

  2. Perfect with za’atar or fresh herbs!



  3. SABINA – Thank you. Enjoy the cake:) That recipe is easy but takes longer to make:) I sometimes use a similar method, but in a jar instead of a pot. Learned it from my Ukrainian friend. I may post the recipe sometime later. Cheers.

  4. farida, thank you so much for this – I wish I k ew long time ago how easy it is to make. Next is your cardamom ricotta cookies!

  5. Super! Loved the step by step explanation.

  6. I love the fact that I can make this cheese! Thanks for your step by step pics.

  7. Farida, we so used to use kesmik for breakfast here that I never thought that it might be a good topic for for cookbook )) nothing can replace this taste!!

  8. I just love this kind of cheese, my friends mother used to make a curd cheese like this, and served it with rich olive oil on top, with flat breads. It was great.

  9. I want to try using kefir instead of plain yogurt. Ciao!

  10. Wow Feride this looks amazing I really have to try this someday.

  11. Hi,Feride xanim,I want to say it’s good to read about you.Take yourself.All Azeries proud of you.

  12. Great post on a cheese that sounds like our arishe cheese.

  13. Is Cottage cheese same with kesmik or lor? And how is it made?

  14. DOGGIRON – If you mean cottage cheese that sells in the US, it is different from kesmik and lor. It is prepared the same way as kermik but the milky lumps are mixed with cream before serving. Here’s a sample recipe:

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